Endodontic treatment is often referred to as “pulp removal” or “root canal filling“. These names describe the main goals of endodontic treatment in a somewhat simple, but accurate way.
One of the main obstacles to successful treatment is the demanding and complex anatomy of root canals.
In order for a tooth to be treated well and then filled, the length of the root canal needs to be measured very precisely, to a tenth of a millimeter, to find the apex: the tip of the root.
This was once done by the method of measurement using X-ray images, which is quite inaccurate and strongly depends on the image quality.
Many dentists rely solely on their own feeling and tactile abilities which has been scientifically proven countless times as an unreliable method.
Modern endodontics today recommends only the electronic method of determination of the location of the root apex, by using a device called apex locator.
The electronic apex locator is a device that determines the position of the apical narrowing and thus determines the length of the root canal.
The apex has a specific resistance to electrical current and this is measured using a pair of electrodes that are placed on the lip and attached to an endodontic instrument.
The electronic principle is relatively simple and is based on electrical resistance; when the circuit is completed (the tissue touches the tip of the instrument), the resistance decreases significantly and the current suddenly starts to flow.
Various devices signalize this with an audible signal, a flashing light, a digital reading, or an indicator on a wheel.
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